2 Theory

When you're first learning R, getting on R and planning little projects and writing code is definitely the best way to learn. Reading to understand why you're getting the output that you are or why you're doing something the way you are doing is definitely important, but it's always better to get hands on.

Having said that, one thing that I craved when I was learning R was to understand why people coded the way they did, or why one thing was always recommended over another in StackOverflow answers. I picked it up along the way, but there were many times where I was doing something completely unneccessary or inefficiently because I hadn't been exposed to a discussion about why I shouldn't be doing what I was doing. Similarly, when I eventually did come across an article outlining some of the philosophy or theory underpinning an approach, a little light switch would go and so many more things would click into place.

So this chapter is dedicated purely to some of the simple theory underpinning certain actions in R. This is an opionated piece as I hold a personal opinion on how certain things should be done in R, but that doesn't mean that I'm right. Instead, I hope this section helps you think more deeply about what you're trying to achieve and the best way to get there before you start your next project.

2.1 Abstraction

2.1.1 Definition

Abstraction is the idea of removing levels of complexity. For example, when you press a key on your keyboard and a letter appears on the screen, you don't need to know how the keyboard interfaces with the computer, or how that stroke is eventually turned into coloured pixels on a screen. That degree of complexity has been abstracted away.

Another example is a calculator. You type in the numbers and decide what you want to do, and your general goal (say, adding two numbers together) is translated into the practicality of performing that action. Your general goal is translated into lots of little more specific ones.

2.1.2 Abstraction in R

The idea of abstraction is a very prevalent one in computer science. R itself is an abstraction; it lets you interface with the CPU without having to know everything about it. And because R is a functional programming language, abstraction is an important thing to understand to write the best possible code.

2.2 Organisation


2.2.1 Packages as projects


2.3 Iteration


2.3.1 For loops and lists